Typical mill additions to enamels

Below a summary of typical milling additions to wet applied porcelain/vitreous enamels and their function(s).

Milling AdditionFunction
Aerosilfor set-up
Aluminium oxidematting agent and to increase heat resistance of ground coat
Aluminium hydroxideequivalent to aluminium oxide
Aluminium powderincrease heat resistance in ground coat
Antimony trioxideincrease adherence of ground coat
Barium chloridefor set-up in cover coat
Barium carbonatefor set-up in cover coat
Bentonitefor set-up
Boraxfor set-up in ground coat
Boric acidfor set-up
Cadmium oxideto stabilise Cd-Se red enamels
Clayprovide bubble structure
Cupric chloridefor self lustre enamel 1118
EK-1000for continuous clean enamel
Feldsparfor ground coat
Gumstincrease filmstrength
Magnesium chloridefor set-up cover coat
Magnesium nitrateto increase suspension and to prevent fishscales
Opacifier UVopacifier
Potashfor set-up
Potassium choridefor set-up cover coat
Potassium nitrateoxidizing agent for aluminium enamels
Quartzto increase firing range and matting agent
Silicic acidfor set-up
Silver sandfor heat resistant ground coat
Soda ashfor set-up in ground coat
Sodium aluminatefor set-up in cover coat
Sodium nitritefor set-up in ground coat
Sodium pyrophosphateto decrease set-up
Sodium silico fluoridefor set-up cover coat
Titanium dioxideopacifier
Trisodium phosphateto prevent rusting in cast iron ground coat
Ureato prevent hairlines in cover coat
Zircon oxideopacifier

More info about milling addition may be found in the following manuals :

  • Excellent reference book with 870 pages & hardcover about the preparation, application & properties of enamels !   Contains everything you want to know about :   - The history of enameling - Raw materials for enamels - Fundamental considerations - Metalic substrate for enameling - Preparation of the metal surfaces for enamelling - Enamel...

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See also :

products for wet enamel preparation

wet enamel testing equipment